The current system of standardised testing in primary schools is not fit for purpose.
There is a great deal of evidence demonstrating that the current regime is damaging to children’s well-being, demoralising for teachers and provides little real information about the performance of schools.
We believe there are more efficient ways to measure the performance of schools and more compassionate and beneficial ways to assess children as they progress through primary school.
We’ve brought together our case against standardised testing, our proposed alternative to the current system and further evidence from academics and experts proving that our children deserve to be More Than A Score.
Evidence is growing that the current regime of standardised testing is not fit for purpose.
High stakes testing is used to determine teachers’ pay or ranks schools against each other. Research shows that, as a result, teachers focus on the limited scope of the test and, for months on end, the curriculum narrows to just English and maths (e.g. Clarke et al. 2003; Jones and Egley 2004; Children, Schools and Families Committee 2008; Rothstein et al 2008; Alexander 2010).
In 2008, the Children, Schools and Families Committee found that “any efforts by the government to introduce more breadth into the school curriculum are likely to be undermined by the enduring imperative for schools, created by the accountability measures, to ensure that their pupils perform well in national tests”.
Children with low attainment, disadvantaged pupils and those with special educational needs are affected by this narrowing of the curriculum to an even greater degree as they will tend to spend even more time focusing on English and maths through booster and catch-up sessions, at the expense of the rest of the curriculum (Hutchings 2015).
In research by the NEU in 2018, nearly nine in ten (88%) teachers said that SATs do not benefit children’s learning.
Research by the NEU in 2018 summarised teachers concerns about SATs on certain groups of children.
In response to high stakes testing, teachers adopt a teaching style which emphasises transmission teaching of knowledge (rote-learning). This favours those students who prefer to learn in this way and disadvantages and lowers the self-esteem of those who prefer more active and creative learning experiences (Harlen and Deakin Crick 2002).
Research by the NEU in 2018 demonstrated that nine in ten primary school teachers believe a SATs-based primary assessment system is detrimental to children’s well-being. Teachers reported children crying, having nightmares and being so stressed they needed additional support (NEU 2018).
More Than A Score’s own research showed that almost one in four pupils place so much importance on SATs, they believe that SATs results will help them to find a job in the future.
Children with higher levels of emotional, behavioural, social, and school well-being, on average, have higher levels of academic achievement and are more engaged in school. Relationships between emotional, behavioural, social, and school wellbeing and later educational outcomes are generally similar for children and adolescents, regardless of their gender and parents’ educational level (DfE 2012).
Research by the NUT in 2016 showed that:
Recent research by Margaret M Clark and Jonathan Glazzard concluded that the Year 1 phonics check provides no useful information on pupils and that heads, teachers and parents believe it should be discontinued. Heads described the detrimental effects of the test on pupils including good young readers becoming tearful and anxious about the use of nonsense words.
We believe assessment of children’s learning is essential for both teachers and parents. We also believe that schools should be measured and held accountable to children, parents, local communities and the government.
But the current system doesn’t work because the information from SATs isn’t credible.
Teachers spend their days in the classroom with our children. They should be trusted to use their professional expertise to decide the best way to assess their pupils. We want to see teachers use both formative and summative assessment. Formative assessment takes place throughout the school year and supports pupils while they are learning. It’s based on observing what children can do, and discussion between them and their teacher.
Summative assessment tests pupils to find what they have learned at a particular point in time – at the end of a project or unit of work, for instance. Formative and summative assessments can be combined in an approach that is detailed, rigorous and supportive.
Teachers and schools should also be able to compare their pupils’ progress against national standards.
This can be done by teachers coming together to moderate pupils’ work. The results of moderation will feed into a school’s own plans for self-improvement, which will also be assisted by supportive inspection of schools.
Parents also play an essential role. They need the correct information to support their children’s learning. Meaningful reports will summarise what children can do and understand. Some schools already produce rich, detailed descriptive reports on pupils’ progress, based on formative and summative assessment, to keep parents informed and plan learning development.
When it comes to national monitoring of standards, we believe that testing should involve only a sample of children. In fact, the DfE already does this to monitor national standards in Primary Science! There is a need to monitor the standards of the primary school system. But there is no need to impose high-stakes testing on every child to provide this information. Tests could include different curriculum areas so that a picture of standards across the whole curriculum would become available, informing teachers’ work.
There are alternatives to the current regime and the time is right for debate among heads, governors, parents, politicians and parents. Our contribution is Beyond the Exam Factory, a book bringing together experience and expertise from England and internationally. We hope it will open up widespread debate among parents, teachers, heads, school governors and politicians. You can download your free copy.
The Phonics Screening Check: An Independent Enquiry into the views of heads, parents and pupils
This independent research by Margaret Clark and Jonathan Glazzard proves that heads, teachers and parents are overwhelmingly opposed to the Year 1 phonics check.
Baseline Assessment: Why It Doesn’t Add Up.
We have prepared a dossier bringing together the case against the introduction of baseline assessment with arguments from academics and experts.
Exam Factories? The Impact of Accountability Measures on Children and Young People
This independent research was commissioned by the National Union of Teachers and conducted by Professor Merryn Hutchings.
This is a wide ranging research project that incorporates a survey of almost 8,000 teachers, an extensive literature review and quantitative research utilising case studies of both heads and teachers and children. Taken together, this research demonstrates the negative impact on children and young people in England of the current accountability measures in schools.
They’re Children… Not Robots, Not Machines: The Introduction of Reception Baseline Assessment
The National Union of Teachers and Association of Teachers and Lecturers commissioned Dr Alice Bradbury and Dr Guy Roberts Holmes to conduct independent research into baseline assessment. The research showed that teachers and school leaders had serious doubts as to the accuracy of the assessment and its use in measuring progress. Baseline assessment led to ‘stopping teaching’ and was not seen as helping teachers get to know pupils better.
This research report and the campaign surrounding it played an important role in the Government’s earlier abandonment of Baseline Assessment and the report received the 2016 BERA SAGE Public Impact Award.
The Mismeasurement of Learning
The Mismeasurement of Learning is a collection of short essays presenting the evidence and the arguments around curriculum and assessment in primary education. Brought together by Reclaiming Schools and the NUT, essay authors include John Coe, Pam Jarvis and Guy Roberts-Holmes and Alice Bradbury.
Synergies for Better Learning: An International Perspective on Evaluation and Assessment
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2013) Synergies for Better Learning: An International Perspective on Evaluation and Assessment, OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education. This report compares the experience of 28 OECD countries, analyses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, and offers policy advice on using evaluation and assessment to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of education.
Assessment, Standards and Quality of Learning in Primary Education
Wynne Harlen’s report provides a critical review of the assessment system in England introduced between 2014 and 2016, in the light of evidence from research and practice in six other countries. It begins with some ground-clearing discussion of the terms used in relation to tests and other forms of pupil assessment. The next two sections concern the purposes of assessment, particularly formative and summative assessment, the uses of summative assessment data for accountability and national monitoring and the impact on curriculum content and pedagogy. Section four describes how assessment for these purposes and uses is conducted in England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, Sweden and France, concluding with an overview of themes running through these examples. The main points from this analysis are drawn together in the fifth section, providing a critical perspective on the system in England in light of alternative approaches in other systems. Finally some implications for policy and practice are identified.
NSPCC - 'Under Pressure'
NSPCC ChildLine focused their annual report 2013-14 on children’s mental health. ‘Under Pressure’ highlighted the increase in calls to ChildLine from primary-age children about school related stress, anxiety and other mental health problems.